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Schlägel und Eisen ist ein international gebräuchliches Symbol für den Bergbau. Schlägel und Bergeisen waren im historischen Bergbau die wichtigsten Werkzeuge im Gezähe des Bergmanns. Schlägel und Eisen ist ein international gebräuchliches Symbol für den Bergbau. Schlägel und Abbaugebiete, insbesondere Bergwerke oder Tagebaue symbolisiert, auf dem Kopf stehend werden „stillgelegte“ Bergwerke symbolisiert. heute das symbol für den gesamten Bergbau, weltweit werden die Bergbau- in Karten werden durch das Zeichen Abbaugebiete, insbesondere Bergwerke. Das Symbol des Bergbaus schlechthin ist das gekreuzte Bergwerkszeichen aus Schlägel Schlägel und Eisen werden als Symbol für Bergwerke seit dem werden durch das Zeichen Abbaugebiete, insbesondere Bergwerke oder Tagebaue symbolisiert, auf dem Kopf stehend werden stillgelegte.

Bergwerk Symbol

3DREAMS Keksausstecher Bergbau Symbol Schlägel und Eisen Bergeisen Ausstecher Geschenke für Ruhrgebiet Fans Bergmann Hammer and Pick. heute das symbol für den gesamten Bergbau, weltweit werden die Bergbau- in Karten werden durch das Zeichen Abbaugebiete, insbesondere Bergwerke. Laden Sie Bergwerk symbol Stockvektoren bei der besten Agentur für Vektorgrafik mit Millionen von erstklassigen, lizenzfreien Stockvektoren, Illustrationen und.

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Home Home. Is this your country? No Yes. Bergwerk Rammelsberg, den gamle bydel i Goslar og Oberharzer Wasserwirtschaft. Brug dette symbol.

Gem Slet OK Afbryd. Vil du virkelig slette din rute? URL til at dele ruten:. Del ruten via andre tjenester:. Din rute er tom. Sycamore trees are also found in these woods.

Spruce woods thrive in the highest locations from about m to the tree line at around 1, m above sea level. These woods are also home to some deciduous trees such as rowan, silver and downy birches Betula pendula and Betula pubescens and willows Salix spec.

Conditions of high humidity foster an environment rich in mosses and lichens. In spite of the near-natural habitat there are only a few, indigenous, genetically adapted autochthone spruce trees.

Wood-reed spruce woods dominate. A well developed ground vegetation thrives on their moderately rocky and fresh, but certainly not wet, soils, characterised in appearance especially by grasses such as shaggy wood-reed Calamagrostis villosa and wavy hair-grass Avenella flexuosa.

The soils in the higher regions are, as in most of the Harz, comparatively poor in nutrients and bases, so that only a few herbaceous plants occur here, such as heath bedstraw Galium saxatile.

For that reason it is more the ferns, mosses, lichens and fungi that, in addition to spruce trees, characterise these woods.

Boulders and stone runs occur in the areas of weather-resistant rock in the high alti- montane and montane zones — these are extreme habitats for vegetation.

Due to the lack of soil material, only weak, straggly, very open spruce woods thrive here. They have an especially high variety of trees and allow more room of light-loving species such as silver birch, rowan, sycamore, willow and dwarf bushes such as the blueberry Vaccinium myrtillus.

Mosses and ferns are also common here. One unusual species is the Carpathian birch Betula pubescens subsp. Bog-spruce woods are found around the raised bogs on marshy and boggy soils.

In these sorts of places spruce woods can, in exceptional cases, also form the natural woodland in lower down the mountains.

These wet, moorland woods have a high proportion of peat mosses Sphagnum spec. The ground vegetation may also have a rich proliferation of low bushes such as cowberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea.

Clumps of purple moor grass Molinia caerulea are also typical of this type of woodland habitat. The characteristic species of fungi in natural spruce woods are Phellinus viticola and prunes and custard Tricholomopsis decora.

Ravine Schluchtwald , riparian Auwald and river source Quellwald woods only occur in small areas. In these places the common beech gives way to hardier deciduous species such as sycamore, large-leaved lime Tilia platyphyllos , Scots elm or ash.

The herbaceous layer is similar to that of the better-nourished beech woods. Notable species amongst the plant communities here include the Alpine blue-sow-thistle Cicerbita alpina , perennial honesty Lunaria rediviva , hard shield fern Polystichum aculeatum and long beech fern Phegopteris connectilis.

The raised bogs in the Harz are some of the best preserved in central Europe. They were formed at the end of the last ice age about 10, years ago.

A significant proportion of the vegetation on these raised bogs is made up of peat mosses Sphagnum spec. The flarks Schlenken and the hummocks Bulten are home to different species of flora.

In the flarks, for example, Sphagnum cuspidatum is found, whereas the hummocks are preferred by Sphagnum magellanicum. The blanket of peat moss is penetrated by dwarf bushes such as cowberry and blueberry.

Bog-rosemary Andromeda polifolia is a relict of the ice age. Other such ice age plants include the dwarf birch Betula nana and few-flowered sedge Carex pauciflora.

Cranberries Vaccinium oxicoccus bloom from May to June. The black crowberry Empetrum nigrum may also be seen amongst those bearing black fruit. Common heather Calluna vulgaris grows on the drier hummocks and occasionally the cross-leaved heath Erica tetralix may be found.

Typical grasses are the sheathed cottongrass Eriophorum vaginatum , known for its bright, white clusters of fruit and deergrass Scirpus cespitosus , which is rust-red in the autumn.

One fascinating moorland plant is the round-leaved sundew Drosera rotundifolia. Bog or northern bilberry Vaccinium uliginosum grows on the drier margins of the bog.

A multitude of wild animals live in the beech forests of the Harz Mountains. Over 5, species, most of them insects, have their home in these woods.

They include many species that help to decompose leaves and work them into the soil and ground cover, including springtails , oribatid mites , woodlice , roundworms , millipedes , earthworms and snails.

Characteristic breeding birds in the beech woods, with their abundance of dead wood, are the black woodpecker Dryocopus martius and stock dove Columba oenas.

An indication of the natural state of the beech woods in the Harz is the return of the black stork Ciconia nigra. This shy and susceptible resident of richly diverse deciduous and mixed forest has become very rare in central Europe due to increasing disturbance of its habitat caused by a lack of old trees and natural brooks.

Through improvements to its habitat, including the renaturalisation of waterways and the creation of relatively undisturbed peaceful areas, the black stork population has now recovered.

A typical mammal of such deciduous woods is the European wildcat Felis silvestris , that has established a stable population in the Harz.

It prefers the diverse wooded areas, which offer a rich variety of food. The animal kingdom of the mixed beech and spruce woods is also diverse.

Species that thrive in mixed forest are especially at home. For example, the mixed mountain forest is the natural habitat of the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus.

The Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus may also be found here. It breeds almost exclusively in black woodpecker holes in old beeches, and needs, unlike the spruce woods, more open beech forest with its higher population of small mammals in its search for food.

For cover, however, it prefers the darker, denser spruce trees. A large number of the animals that live in natural spruce forest are suited to the special conditions of life in the higher parts of the Harz.

Typical residents amongst the bird population include the crested tit Parus cristatus , goldcrest and firecrest Regulus regulus and Regulus ignicapillus , siskin Carduelis spinus , treecreeper Certhia familiaris , coal tit Parus ater and crossbill Loxia curvirostra.

Special mention should be made here of the pygmy owl Glaucidium passerinum which is threatened with extinction and which lives in the submontane to subalpine zones within mixed and pine forests interspersed with open areas.

They prefer spruce woods for breeding, but feed in more open stands of trees or on open moorland. Like the black stork , the pygmy owl had long since disappeared from the Harz, but returned in the s of its own volition, as its ancestral homeland once again became more natural, so that there was sufficient food to support it insects, small mammals and small birds as well as standing dead wood spruce trees with woodpecker holes.

In addition to the many species of birds, there is a range of large butterflies in the various spruce woods that, outside of the Harz, are seriously endangered or simply non-existent.

Two species will be mentioned here as examples. Gnophos sordarius occurs in old, open wood-reed spruce forest, sometimes in connection with stone runs or bog spruce forests; Enthephria caesiata is a native of the bilberry-rich bog spruce woods.

Only a few animals are able to survive the extreme conditions of the raised bogs. Examples of these are the Alpine emerald dragonfly Somatochlora alpestris , which only occurs in Lower Saxony in the Harz, and is endangered in Germany, and the Subarctic darner Aeshna subarctica , a damselfly which is threatened with extinction.

Rocks and stone runs are important habitat components for the peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus and ring ouzel Turdus torquatus.

The peregrine, which is threatened with extinction here, needs steep rock outcrops with little vegetation.

After its population had died out in the Harz, a breeding pair was re-established in the region. A crucial contribution has been made by extensive efforts to promote quiet areas in the ancestral breeding grounds of this shy species.

Since , a breeding pair has settled in the eastern Harz as the result of a wildlife reintroduction project. The ring ouzel prefers semi-open stone runs and lightly wooded transition zones between treeless raised bogs and forests.

The Harz is home to one of its few, isolated breeding areas in central Europe. Its main distribution area extends across northwest Europe, including large parts of England and Scotland, as well as the high mountains of southern and eastern Europe.

The waterways, with their distinct mountain stream character, play an important role right across the Harz.

In comparison with the other natural regions of Lower Saxony, they are still very natural and varied, and the water is very clean.

As a result of the high water velocity of the Harz streams, flowers rarely gain a foothold in the water. Even the animals in these streams need to be well suited to high velocities.

Only a few species, such as fish, swim actively against the stream. The most common species are brown trout Salmon trutta forma fario and bullhead Cottus gobio.

Much richer in variety, by contrast, is the range of species in the system of crevices under the streambed. In addition to the insects and fish hatchlings that thrive here, may be found protozoons , flatworms Turbellaria and water mites Hygrobatoidea.

Other species of animals cling fast to the stones, e. In the calmer parts of the stream, behind stones or in blankets of moss, there are also water beetles Hydrophilidae and small shrimp-like amphipods.

Occasionally the golden-ringed dragonfly Cordulegaster boltoni and Beautiful Demoiselle Calopteryx virgo , a type of damselfly , can be seen by streams in the Harz.

The dipper Cinclus cinclus , which is found everywhere on Harz streams, occurs almost exclusively in the highlands. Its habitat is very fast-flowing, clear mountain streams with wooded banks.

It can dive and run under water along the stream bed. It turns stones over in its search for food. The grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea also uses the rich food supplies of the mountain brooks.

In , the lynx was successfully reintroduced by the Harz National Park , and it has since fitted well into the ecology of the region. Amongst the mammals that may be hunted are the red deer , roe deer , wild boar and mouflon.

Settlement within the mountains began only years ago, as in ancient times dense forests made the region almost inaccessible. The suffix -rode from German : roden , to stub denotes a place where woodland had been cleared to develop a settlement.

The year saw the discovery of silver deposits near the town of Goslar , and mines became established in the following centuries throughout the mountains.

During the Middle Ages , ore from this region was exported along trade routes to far-flung places, such as Mesopotamia.

The wealth of the region declined after these mines became exhausted in the early 19th century. People abandoned the towns for a short time, but prosperity eventually returned with tourism.

Today the Harz forms a popular tourist destination for summer hiking as well as winter sports. The Neanderthals entered the stage about , years ago and hunted aurochs , bison , brown bear and cave bear , mammoths , rhinos , horses , reindeer , forest elephants and other animals in the Harz region.

Tools used by Neanderthals were discovered inter alia in the Einhorn Cave in the southern Harz , years ago and in the Rübeland Caves.

Finds of birch pitch near Aschersleben on the northern edge of the Harz point to the use of this prehistoric adhesive by Neanderthals about 50, years ago.

The Upper Palaeolithic Revolution , about 40, years ago, saw Homo sapiens move from Africa into Europe, including to the Harz region, where they appear to have ousted the Neanderthals and subsequently settled here.

The Harzgau itself was first mentioned in a deed by the Emperor, Louis the Pious , from the year , in which it was referred to by its High German form, Hartingowe.

According to the Fulda annals of , the Harzgau was occupied by the Harudes and after whom the Harudengau Harudorum pagus was named.

Harud , from which Hard , Hart and Harz are derived, means forest or forested mountains, and the Harudes were the residents or dwellers in the Harud.

Of more recent origin are settlements whose names end in —rode , a suffix that is first discernable in the Harzgau from the mid-9th century. Where the founders of these villages came from is unknown.

Charlemagne declared the Harz a restricted imperial forest or Reichsbannwald. Eike von Repkow's Sachsenspiegel which, for centuries, formed the basis on which German law was administered, described the Harz as a place where wild animals are guaranteed protection in the king's restricted forests.

There were three restricted forests, so described, in the state of Saxony, where there was no longer unfettered access for everyone.

This ban did not last forever. Mining, ironworks, water management, increasing settlement, woodland clearances, cattle driving, agriculture, and later tourism all undermined this imperial protection over the centuries.

As early as , monks who had settled in Walkenried bought extensive tracts of forest in the western Harz, to secure economically the one quarter of the Rammelsberg ore profits promised to them by Frederick Barbarossa in From that it can be deduced that there was already a shortage of wood then.

From the 12th to the 14th centuries, large parts of the Harz were managed economically by the Cistercian Abbey of Walkenried.

As well as agriculture and fishing, they also controlled the silver mining industry in the Upper Harz and in Goslar.

In the middle of the 14th century, the settlements in the Harz became heavily depopulated as a result of the Black Death , and a systematic resettlement of mining villages in the Upper Harz did not take place until the first half of the 16th century.

In , the Nordhausen doctor, Johannes Thal, published the first book on regional flora in the world, Silva hercynia , in which he described the flowers specific to the Harz.

The ducal decree stated, inter alia , that the cave should be permanently preserved by all those responsible as a special, natural wonder.

It also stated that nothing should be spoiled or destroyed, and that groups of ordinary strangers should not be allowed to enter without prior arrangement.

A resident mine worker was entrusted to oversee the natural monument. Until the issue of this conservation order, there had only been an order for the protection of the forest, which had been issued by the ruling princes for real, practical considerations.

But for the first time the cave order took ethical-aesthetic considerations into account. The year was the birth of classic nature conservation in the Harz.

The order had been precipitated by the earlier, serious destruction of the cave's features by vandals. The first Harz 'rangers' were formed.

The steadily increasing consumption of wood by the pits and smelting works led to overexploitation of the forests and, from about , to their outright destruction.

There were no less than 30, charcoal piles in the Harz. In , an order by Count Ernst of Stolberg forbade Brocken guides to take strangers or local folk to the Brocken without special permission, and the lighting of fires was forbidden.

The first attempts at forest conservation in the Harz were centred on the Brocken, and began with a far-sighted nature conservation act over years ago.

In , Count Christian Ernest of the House of Stolberg issued an ordinance in which destruction or damage to the forest on the Brocken would be severely punished.

As a young man, the famous German poet, Goethe visited the Harz several times and had a number of important lifetime experiences.

These included his walks on the Brocken and his visit to the mines in Rammelsberg. Later, his observations of the rocks on the Brocken led to his geological research.

His first visit to the Harz awakened in him a keen interest in science see Goethes: Wahrheit und Dichtung. In , Goethe climbed the Brocken, departing from Torfhaus.

At that time, there was still no mass tourism on the Brocken; in the year only walkers were recorded. Goethe described his feelings on the summit later, as follows: So lonely, I say to myself, while looking down at this peak, will it feel to the person, who only wants to open his soul to the oldest, first, deepest feelings of truth.

The count's guest house on the Heinrichshöhe had become too small and suffered from overcrowding; in it burned down.

In , a new guest house was built on the Brocken to replace it. Around , large swathes of the Harz were deforested.

The less resistant spruce monoculture, that arose as a consequence of the mining industry in the Upper Harz, was largely destroyed by a bark beetle outbreak and a storm of hurricane proportions in November The woods were largely reforested with spruce.

Continuous problems with bark beetle and storms were the negative side effects of mining in the Harz Mountains. In , a mounted forester, Spellerberg, from Lautenthal, killed the last lynx in the Harz on the Teufelsberg.

At the start of the 19th century, the increasing changes to the natural landscape wrought by man and the extinction of large mammals like the bear, wolf and lynx raised awareness of the threat to nature.

In , the district administrator of Quedlinburg placed the Teufelsmauer , "a rock outcrop famous as an object of folklore and as a rare natural curiosity" , near Thale under protection, because the inhabitants of neighbouring districts were using the rocks as a quarry.

This protection order survived in spite of all protests from the local villages. Thus, a valuable natural monument was saved from destruction, and it is of note that the authorities felt that the 'romantic' reasons for its preservation were entirely justified.

Albert Peter laid out the Brocken Garden in This was the first Alpine flower garden to be established on German soil. And, in terms of its scientific concept and scope, the Brocken Garden was the first of its type worldwide.

The Brocken Railway began service in , against the already strong concerns of conservationists. For example, the botanist, Bley, wanted to prevent trains from climbing the Brocken, because it he felt it would threaten the Brocken's flora.

In , Hermann Löns uttered his famous cry "More Protection for the Brocken" Mehr Schutz für den Brocken in light of the mass tourism that was beginning to affect the Brocken.

By , he effectively pressed for the establishment of a Harz national park, without calling it such, in Der Harzer Heimatspark Verlag E. Appelhans u.

The Harz played a special role in the life of the famous regional poet, naturalist and local patriot, undoubtedly not least because his second wife, Lisa Hausmann, came from Barbis in the South Harz.

Around , the capercaillie population in the Harz died out. The Wernigerode rector, W. Voigt, wrote, in , in his famous Brockenbuch : In America it has long become the business of the people, to create a sacrosanct haven for the native flora and fauna of the regions in national parks.

North and South Germany have their heath and alpine parks. May the joint efforts of the royal authorities, the local police, the Wernigerode Nature Conservation Society and individual friends of the Brocken also succeed now in central Germany, through caring nurture across the board, in establishing and preserving the Brocken too, as a small, but unique, nature reserve for the German people.

In the s, national park planning in Germany became specific again. The Second World War prevented these national park plans from being taken forward; nevertheless, in , an Upper Harz Nature Reserve Naturschutzgebietes Oberharz was designated.

During the Nazi era , the Harz area became an important production site for the armaments industry. Many factories, important to the war effort, were located there and, as the war neared its conclusion, they were increasingly staffed with slave labour.

As a result, the Harz was the location of several hundred forced labour camps and KZs at that time. Its prisoners were used by the SS mainly in the tunnel excavation and nearby underground stations of the Mittelwerk Ltd.

The slave labourers at the Dora camp were subjected to brutal conditions, which led to more than 20, deaths.

Bergwerk Symbol Jahrhunderts zurück. Die Aufnahme in den Bergmannsstand war mit einer Reihe Beste Spielothek in Endt finden Vorteilen verknüpft: Bergleute waren seit vom Secret Casino befreit. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Gelsenkirchen und in anderen Städten des Ruhrgebiets. Das Arschleder schützte vor Beste Spielothek in Barenburg finden bei der oft im Sitzen zu verrichtenden Schlägelarbeit. Abertamy : In Silber und Gold. Ikone des Kohlebergbaus. Sie unterlagen einer eigenen Gerichtsbarkeit, nämlich den Berggerichten. Drei Schlägel als Bergwerk Symbol des Bergbaus Kohlscheid. Seit der ersten Hälfte des Schräggekreuzt Spaten und Schlägel für Silbererzbergbau; Lam. In Stein gemeisselt findet man dort das Logo der Hibernia Bergbaugesellschaft. Hauptartikel : Liste der Wappen mit Schlägel und Eisen. Drei silberne Eisen mit goldenem Stiel für mittelalterlichen Bergbau; Schönenberg. Die Performance-Cookies sammeln Informationen darüber, wie diese Website genutzt wird. Jahrhundert beispielsweise im Wappen der ausgestorbenen Burgherren von Hammerstein ; das Dr. Fabricius Erscheinen von zwei überkreuz gelegten Hammerfiguren datiert der Heraldiker auf das Tafel Bergleute arbeiten an Infografiken. Lediglich das zur Verfügung stellen von Lebensmitteln zu geregelten Preisen hat sich in den Werkskantinen erhalten. Drei Schlägel als Symbole Beste Spielothek in Kallenfels finden Bergbaus Kohlscheid. So kann es leicht vom stiel getrennt Taschenuhr Tastzirkel Trummsäge Tuchhaken Tuchschere. Bergwerk Symbol

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Letztere sind in vielen Fällen historischen Werkzeugen und Arbeitsgeräten nachempfunden, die mit zum Gezähe des Bergmanns gehören. Keil Heraldik. Schlägel erscheinen in Wappen insbesondere in Namens- und Bergbauwappen nicht immer mit einem Eisen kombiniert, sondern auch als Einzelfigur zum Beispiel in Ein- oder Dreizahl, von einer Hand gehalten oder ähnliches. In dieser Anordnung liegen die Werkzeuge griffbereit und der Schlägelholm zur rechten Hand des Rechtshänders hin. Keilhauen verwendet, um weicheres Erz oder Quarz loszuschlagen. Laden Sie Bergwerk symbol Stockvektoren bei der besten Agentur für Vektorgrafik mit Millionen von erstklassigen, lizenzfreien Stockvektoren, Illustrationen und. Echt 14 Karat Gold Bergmann Bergwerk Kumpel Symbol 3D Ketten-​Anhänger (Art): discriminator.be: Schmuck. 3DREAMS Keksausstecher Bergbau Symbol Schlägel und Eisen Bergeisen Ausstecher Geschenke für Ruhrgebiet Fans Bergmann Hammer and Pick. Schlägel und Eisen gekreuzt, Symbol für Bergbau, Kennzeichnet auf einer Karte ein Abbaugebiet, Werktag Kalender aus der Kategorie verschiedene-Symbole. Suchen Sie nach bergwerk-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Gewinnung von Mineralien in der Mine und Oberfläche, lineare Symbole. External contents Required for Ist Mega Sicher external media and third-party content. The Innerste merges into the Leine and its tributaries are the Nette and the Grane. North of the hills lie the Cretaceous layers of the sub-Hercynian depression in the rolling hills Hoard the Umhang Der StierkГ¤mpfer Foreland; south of the Harz, Permian sediments lie flat on southwest-dipping Palaeozoic beds. Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage. Climatically a hill range has lower temperatures and higher levels Beste Spielothek in Burgham finden precipitation than the surrounding land. After building two mines left and right variant are possibleand assigning workers to it stand in front of the bench and hit "E"the site looks like this:. The vegetation of the Harz mountains Bergwerk Symbol divided into six altitudinal zones :. Bergstadt Oberwiesenthal im Erzgebirgskreis Sachsen.

Her anbefales en TBE-vaccination for alle, der opholder sig meget i naturen. Desuden bor der ca. Varer fra et EU-land er afgiftsfri, hvis du selv medbringer dem, og varerne kun er beregnet til eget forbrug.

I Tyskland er det fremherskende klima tempereret kystklima med vestlige vinde. Statsborgere i EU skal ikke bruge visum.

Statsborgere fra alle andre lande er principielt visumpligtige. Here you will find an overview of the types of cookies used on the website. You can set your consent for each category individually.

Home Home. Is this your country? No Yes. Bergwerk Rammelsberg, den gamle bydel i Goslar og Oberharzer Wasserwirtschaft.

Brug dette symbol. Gem Slet OK Afbryd. Vil du virkelig slette din rute? URL til at dele ruten:. Del ruten via andre tjenester:. Over 5, species, most of them insects, have their home in these woods.

They include many species that help to decompose leaves and work them into the soil and ground cover, including springtails , oribatid mites , woodlice , roundworms , millipedes , earthworms and snails.

Characteristic breeding birds in the beech woods, with their abundance of dead wood, are the black woodpecker Dryocopus martius and stock dove Columba oenas.

An indication of the natural state of the beech woods in the Harz is the return of the black stork Ciconia nigra. This shy and susceptible resident of richly diverse deciduous and mixed forest has become very rare in central Europe due to increasing disturbance of its habitat caused by a lack of old trees and natural brooks.

Through improvements to its habitat, including the renaturalisation of waterways and the creation of relatively undisturbed peaceful areas, the black stork population has now recovered.

A typical mammal of such deciduous woods is the European wildcat Felis silvestris , that has established a stable population in the Harz.

It prefers the diverse wooded areas, which offer a rich variety of food. The animal kingdom of the mixed beech and spruce woods is also diverse.

Species that thrive in mixed forest are especially at home. For example, the mixed mountain forest is the natural habitat of the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus.

The Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus may also be found here. It breeds almost exclusively in black woodpecker holes in old beeches, and needs, unlike the spruce woods, more open beech forest with its higher population of small mammals in its search for food.

For cover, however, it prefers the darker, denser spruce trees. A large number of the animals that live in natural spruce forest are suited to the special conditions of life in the higher parts of the Harz.

Typical residents amongst the bird population include the crested tit Parus cristatus , goldcrest and firecrest Regulus regulus and Regulus ignicapillus , siskin Carduelis spinus , treecreeper Certhia familiaris , coal tit Parus ater and crossbill Loxia curvirostra.

Special mention should be made here of the pygmy owl Glaucidium passerinum which is threatened with extinction and which lives in the submontane to subalpine zones within mixed and pine forests interspersed with open areas.

They prefer spruce woods for breeding, but feed in more open stands of trees or on open moorland. Like the black stork , the pygmy owl had long since disappeared from the Harz, but returned in the s of its own volition, as its ancestral homeland once again became more natural, so that there was sufficient food to support it insects, small mammals and small birds as well as standing dead wood spruce trees with woodpecker holes.

In addition to the many species of birds, there is a range of large butterflies in the various spruce woods that, outside of the Harz, are seriously endangered or simply non-existent.

Two species will be mentioned here as examples. Gnophos sordarius occurs in old, open wood-reed spruce forest, sometimes in connection with stone runs or bog spruce forests; Enthephria caesiata is a native of the bilberry-rich bog spruce woods.

Only a few animals are able to survive the extreme conditions of the raised bogs. Examples of these are the Alpine emerald dragonfly Somatochlora alpestris , which only occurs in Lower Saxony in the Harz, and is endangered in Germany, and the Subarctic darner Aeshna subarctica , a damselfly which is threatened with extinction.

Rocks and stone runs are important habitat components for the peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus and ring ouzel Turdus torquatus.

The peregrine, which is threatened with extinction here, needs steep rock outcrops with little vegetation. After its population had died out in the Harz, a breeding pair was re-established in the region.

A crucial contribution has been made by extensive efforts to promote quiet areas in the ancestral breeding grounds of this shy species.

Since , a breeding pair has settled in the eastern Harz as the result of a wildlife reintroduction project. The ring ouzel prefers semi-open stone runs and lightly wooded transition zones between treeless raised bogs and forests.

The Harz is home to one of its few, isolated breeding areas in central Europe. Its main distribution area extends across northwest Europe, including large parts of England and Scotland, as well as the high mountains of southern and eastern Europe.

The waterways, with their distinct mountain stream character, play an important role right across the Harz.

In comparison with the other natural regions of Lower Saxony, they are still very natural and varied, and the water is very clean. As a result of the high water velocity of the Harz streams, flowers rarely gain a foothold in the water.

Even the animals in these streams need to be well suited to high velocities. Only a few species, such as fish, swim actively against the stream.

The most common species are brown trout Salmon trutta forma fario and bullhead Cottus gobio. Much richer in variety, by contrast, is the range of species in the system of crevices under the streambed.

In addition to the insects and fish hatchlings that thrive here, may be found protozoons , flatworms Turbellaria and water mites Hygrobatoidea.

Other species of animals cling fast to the stones, e. In the calmer parts of the stream, behind stones or in blankets of moss, there are also water beetles Hydrophilidae and small shrimp-like amphipods.

Occasionally the golden-ringed dragonfly Cordulegaster boltoni and Beautiful Demoiselle Calopteryx virgo , a type of damselfly , can be seen by streams in the Harz.

The dipper Cinclus cinclus , which is found everywhere on Harz streams, occurs almost exclusively in the highlands.

Its habitat is very fast-flowing, clear mountain streams with wooded banks. It can dive and run under water along the stream bed.

It turns stones over in its search for food. The grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea also uses the rich food supplies of the mountain brooks. In , the lynx was successfully reintroduced by the Harz National Park , and it has since fitted well into the ecology of the region.

Amongst the mammals that may be hunted are the red deer , roe deer , wild boar and mouflon. Settlement within the mountains began only years ago, as in ancient times dense forests made the region almost inaccessible.

The suffix -rode from German : roden , to stub denotes a place where woodland had been cleared to develop a settlement. The year saw the discovery of silver deposits near the town of Goslar , and mines became established in the following centuries throughout the mountains.

During the Middle Ages , ore from this region was exported along trade routes to far-flung places, such as Mesopotamia. The wealth of the region declined after these mines became exhausted in the early 19th century.

People abandoned the towns for a short time, but prosperity eventually returned with tourism. Today the Harz forms a popular tourist destination for summer hiking as well as winter sports.

The Neanderthals entered the stage about , years ago and hunted aurochs , bison , brown bear and cave bear , mammoths , rhinos , horses , reindeer , forest elephants and other animals in the Harz region.

Tools used by Neanderthals were discovered inter alia in the Einhorn Cave in the southern Harz , years ago and in the Rübeland Caves. Finds of birch pitch near Aschersleben on the northern edge of the Harz point to the use of this prehistoric adhesive by Neanderthals about 50, years ago.

The Upper Palaeolithic Revolution , about 40, years ago, saw Homo sapiens move from Africa into Europe, including to the Harz region, where they appear to have ousted the Neanderthals and subsequently settled here.

The Harzgau itself was first mentioned in a deed by the Emperor, Louis the Pious , from the year , in which it was referred to by its High German form, Hartingowe.

According to the Fulda annals of , the Harzgau was occupied by the Harudes and after whom the Harudengau Harudorum pagus was named.

Harud , from which Hard , Hart and Harz are derived, means forest or forested mountains, and the Harudes were the residents or dwellers in the Harud.

Of more recent origin are settlements whose names end in —rode , a suffix that is first discernable in the Harzgau from the mid-9th century. Where the founders of these villages came from is unknown.

Charlemagne declared the Harz a restricted imperial forest or Reichsbannwald. Eike von Repkow's Sachsenspiegel which, for centuries, formed the basis on which German law was administered, described the Harz as a place where wild animals are guaranteed protection in the king's restricted forests.

There were three restricted forests, so described, in the state of Saxony, where there was no longer unfettered access for everyone.

This ban did not last forever. Mining, ironworks, water management, increasing settlement, woodland clearances, cattle driving, agriculture, and later tourism all undermined this imperial protection over the centuries.

As early as , monks who had settled in Walkenried bought extensive tracts of forest in the western Harz, to secure economically the one quarter of the Rammelsberg ore profits promised to them by Frederick Barbarossa in From that it can be deduced that there was already a shortage of wood then.

From the 12th to the 14th centuries, large parts of the Harz were managed economically by the Cistercian Abbey of Walkenried. As well as agriculture and fishing, they also controlled the silver mining industry in the Upper Harz and in Goslar.

In the middle of the 14th century, the settlements in the Harz became heavily depopulated as a result of the Black Death , and a systematic resettlement of mining villages in the Upper Harz did not take place until the first half of the 16th century.

In , the Nordhausen doctor, Johannes Thal, published the first book on regional flora in the world, Silva hercynia , in which he described the flowers specific to the Harz.

The ducal decree stated, inter alia , that the cave should be permanently preserved by all those responsible as a special, natural wonder.

It also stated that nothing should be spoiled or destroyed, and that groups of ordinary strangers should not be allowed to enter without prior arrangement.

A resident mine worker was entrusted to oversee the natural monument. Until the issue of this conservation order, there had only been an order for the protection of the forest, which had been issued by the ruling princes for real, practical considerations.

But for the first time the cave order took ethical-aesthetic considerations into account. The year was the birth of classic nature conservation in the Harz.

The order had been precipitated by the earlier, serious destruction of the cave's features by vandals.

The first Harz 'rangers' were formed. The steadily increasing consumption of wood by the pits and smelting works led to overexploitation of the forests and, from about , to their outright destruction.

There were no less than 30, charcoal piles in the Harz. In , an order by Count Ernst of Stolberg forbade Brocken guides to take strangers or local folk to the Brocken without special permission, and the lighting of fires was forbidden.

The first attempts at forest conservation in the Harz were centred on the Brocken, and began with a far-sighted nature conservation act over years ago.

In , Count Christian Ernest of the House of Stolberg issued an ordinance in which destruction or damage to the forest on the Brocken would be severely punished.

As a young man, the famous German poet, Goethe visited the Harz several times and had a number of important lifetime experiences.

These included his walks on the Brocken and his visit to the mines in Rammelsberg. Later, his observations of the rocks on the Brocken led to his geological research.

His first visit to the Harz awakened in him a keen interest in science see Goethes: Wahrheit und Dichtung. In , Goethe climbed the Brocken, departing from Torfhaus.

At that time, there was still no mass tourism on the Brocken; in the year only walkers were recorded. Goethe described his feelings on the summit later, as follows: So lonely, I say to myself, while looking down at this peak, will it feel to the person, who only wants to open his soul to the oldest, first, deepest feelings of truth.

The count's guest house on the Heinrichshöhe had become too small and suffered from overcrowding; in it burned down.

In , a new guest house was built on the Brocken to replace it. Around , large swathes of the Harz were deforested.

The less resistant spruce monoculture, that arose as a consequence of the mining industry in the Upper Harz, was largely destroyed by a bark beetle outbreak and a storm of hurricane proportions in November The woods were largely reforested with spruce.

Continuous problems with bark beetle and storms were the negative side effects of mining in the Harz Mountains. In , a mounted forester, Spellerberg, from Lautenthal, killed the last lynx in the Harz on the Teufelsberg.

At the start of the 19th century, the increasing changes to the natural landscape wrought by man and the extinction of large mammals like the bear, wolf and lynx raised awareness of the threat to nature.

In , the district administrator of Quedlinburg placed the Teufelsmauer , "a rock outcrop famous as an object of folklore and as a rare natural curiosity" , near Thale under protection, because the inhabitants of neighbouring districts were using the rocks as a quarry.

This protection order survived in spite of all protests from the local villages. Thus, a valuable natural monument was saved from destruction, and it is of note that the authorities felt that the 'romantic' reasons for its preservation were entirely justified.

Albert Peter laid out the Brocken Garden in This was the first Alpine flower garden to be established on German soil.

And, in terms of its scientific concept and scope, the Brocken Garden was the first of its type worldwide. The Brocken Railway began service in , against the already strong concerns of conservationists.

For example, the botanist, Bley, wanted to prevent trains from climbing the Brocken, because it he felt it would threaten the Brocken's flora.

In , Hermann Löns uttered his famous cry "More Protection for the Brocken" Mehr Schutz für den Brocken in light of the mass tourism that was beginning to affect the Brocken.

By , he effectively pressed for the establishment of a Harz national park, without calling it such, in Der Harzer Heimatspark Verlag E.

Appelhans u. The Harz played a special role in the life of the famous regional poet, naturalist and local patriot, undoubtedly not least because his second wife, Lisa Hausmann, came from Barbis in the South Harz.

Around , the capercaillie population in the Harz died out. The Wernigerode rector, W. Voigt, wrote, in , in his famous Brockenbuch : In America it has long become the business of the people, to create a sacrosanct haven for the native flora and fauna of the regions in national parks.

North and South Germany have their heath and alpine parks. May the joint efforts of the royal authorities, the local police, the Wernigerode Nature Conservation Society and individual friends of the Brocken also succeed now in central Germany, through caring nurture across the board, in establishing and preserving the Brocken too, as a small, but unique, nature reserve for the German people.

In the s, national park planning in Germany became specific again. The Second World War prevented these national park plans from being taken forward; nevertheless, in , an Upper Harz Nature Reserve Naturschutzgebietes Oberharz was designated.

During the Nazi era , the Harz area became an important production site for the armaments industry. Many factories, important to the war effort, were located there and, as the war neared its conclusion, they were increasingly staffed with slave labour.

As a result, the Harz was the location of several hundred forced labour camps and KZs at that time.

Its prisoners were used by the SS mainly in the tunnel excavation and nearby underground stations of the Mittelwerk Ltd. The slave labourers at the Dora camp were subjected to brutal conditions, which led to more than 20, deaths.

In the last weeks of the war , the so-called Harz Fortress Harzfestung is worth mentioning. Its headquarters was at Blankenburg. Amongst the formations mobilised were divisions belonging to the 11th Army , divisions of the Waffen SS and the Volkssturm.

When the United States First Army reached Nordhausen in the southern Harz, and went to advance northwards, it met with resistance, especially in the hills around the towns of Ilfeld and Ellrich.

Several units of Volkssturm troops fought on against the Americans during May. At the time, Sheeran was serving in the 45th U. Infantry Division.

According to Sheeran, his unit was climbing the Harz when they came upon a mule train carrying supplies to German positions on the hillside.

The Americans handed shovels to their prisoners, forced them to dig their own graves, then shot and buried them. Wernher von Braun , one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Germany during the Second World War and, subsequently, in the United States, reportedly ordered blueprints of his work to be hidden in an abandoned mine shaft in the Harz range.

Until , the Inner German Border ran through the western third of the Harz. The Brocken plateau and other peaks near the border were part of a large military out-of-bounds area, which demonstrating walkers first entered on 3 December Tourism on the Brocken has since then become very intense — about 1.

The former out-of-bounds area today has many habitats worth protecting and, as a result, it is being turned into a green belt. The mining industry in the Harz has its origins about 3, years ago during the Bronze Age.

The seven Upper Harz mining towns — Clausthal , Zellerfeld , Bad Grund , Sankt Andreasberg , Lautenthal , Altenau and Wildemann — and around 30 other villages within and on the edge of the Harz can thank the Upper Harz mining and smelting industries for their boom.

The former imperial town of Goslar , too, whose splendour depended on the ore treasures of the Rammelsberg , mined argentiferous lead ore for centuries.

Mining heavily dominated the economic life of the Harz as well as its scenery. Miners created the famous engineering system for the management of water in the Upper Harz, the Upper Harz Water Regale , of which 70 kilometres of ditch and 68 'ponds' with a volume of 8 million cubic metres are still used today.

Without using their considerable hydropower output, silver mining in the Harz would never have been able to attain its major economic significance.

The early beginnings of this industry were first mentioned in , and it was considered in its heyday, at the end of the 15th century, as the most important in Europe.

In the North Thuringian mining area, there were numerous potash mines and, in the vicinity of Röblingen, geological waxes were extracted by a mining concern.

Having formerly had 1, workers, the mine employed just 14 people towards the end, using the most modern technology to extract barite.

With the closure of this facility, mining operations that had begun in the Middle Ages and had continued unbroken since the 16th century, extracting silver , lead and zinc , came to an end.

Bearing witness to the industry are cultural monuments as well as the negative consequences of mining for the environment such as e.

The booming mining industry of bygone centuries in the Harz region — especially for silver , iron , copper , lead and zinc — has declined markedly.

However, the heavy metal residues in the soils of the Upper Harz, which in some cases are significant, represent a serious environmental hazard today.

Copper workings are still important today in the area of Mansfeld. In Bad Lauterberg, barite — used today primarily for the manufacture of paint and in sound insulation — was extracted until July at the Wolkenhügel Pit, the last mine in the entire Harz.

Another important employer is the Clausthal University of Technology. In addition to the classical disciplines of mining and metallurgy, many engineering and science subjects, as well as business studies courses, are taught and researched.

The extensive woods of the Harz mean that forestry plays an important economic role, as do the associated wood-working industries.

In the first millennium AD, hardwood trees mainly common beech were predominant on the higher ground — typical of a natural highland forest.

Hence one spoke of going in die Harten "into the hardwood forest" , a term which gave the Harz its name. Today, however, the commercially managed areas are mainly monocultures of Norway spruce.

A cause of this development was the mining history in the Harz region, with its high demand for wood and the consequent overuse and devastation of the stands of forest.

In addition, there were the climatic changes of the so-called Little Ice Age. The reforestation with relatively easily managed and undemanding spruce trees since the middle of the 18th century was mainly due to the proposals of the Senior Forester and Master Hunter, Johann Georg von Langen.

Tourism is very important to the Harz, although the prevalence of cheap air travel has led to a decline in recent years.

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