Zheng He Schiff Navigationsmenü

Schatzschiffe gehören zu den größten jemals gebauten Segelschiffen und wurden im frühen Jahrhundert unter der Herrschaft von Kaiser Yongle in China gebaut. Diese Schiffe waren zwischen 59 und 84 Meter lang und trugen angeblich bis zu 9 Masten. Die Flotten Zheng Hes bestanden aus Schiffen verschiedener Bauweise, darunter riesigen Dschunken, den „Schatzschiffen“. Bekannt wurden die Schatzschiffe durch die sieben Fahrten des Admirals Zheng He von bis , die. Am Bug war jedes Schiff mit aufgerissenen Augen verziert, und 24 Bronzekanonen auf jedem Großschiff zeigten die grandiose Übermacht dieser. Die größten Schiffe waren bis zu Meter lang, 50 Meter breit und besaßen neun Masten. Das Schiff von Kolumbus war fünfmal kleiner als diese gewaltigen​.

Zheng He Schiff

Die größten Schiffe waren bis zu Meter lang, 50 Meter breit und besaßen neun Masten. Das Schiff von Kolumbus war fünfmal kleiner als diese gewaltigen​. Bekannt wurden die Schatzschiffe durch die sieben Fahrten des Admirals Zheng He von bis , die. Er gab Zheng He den Auftrag, eine riesige Flotte zu bauen. Zwischen 14wurden Schiffe neu gebaut bzw. überholt. Schiffbau, Schifffahrt und.

Zheng He Schiff Video

[Doku] Chinas Drachenflotte - Die Expeditionen von Admiral Zheng He [HD]

Zheng He was captured by the Ming armies at Yunnan in Ma He responded defiantly by saying that the Mongol pretender had jumped into a lake.

Afterwards, the general took him prisoner. Eventually, he gained the confidence and trust of the prince. Zheng He's appearance as an adult was recorded: he was seven chi [c] tall, had a waist that was five chi in circumference, cheeks and a forehead that was high, a small nose, glaring eyes, teeth that were white and well-shaped as shells, and a voice that was as loud as a bell.

It is also recorded that he had great knowledge about warfare and was well-accustomed to battle. The young eunuch eventually became a trusted adviser to the prince and assisted him when the Jianwen Emperor 's hostility to his uncle's feudal bases prompted the — Jingnan Campaign which ended with the emperor's apparent death and the ascension of the Zhu Di, Prince of Yan, as the Yongle Emperor.

In , the Crown Prince had died, thus the deceased prince's son became the new heir apparent. By the time the emperor died 24 June , the Prince of Qin and the Prince of Jin had perished, which left Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan, as the eldest surviving son of the emperor.

However, Zhu Di's nephew succeeded the imperial throne as the Jianwen Emperor. In August , Zhu Di openly rebelled against his nephew. In , Ma He successfully defended Beiping's city reservoir Zhenglunba against the imperial armies.

Zheng He would be one of his commanders during this campaign. In , Zhu Di's armies defeated the imperial forces and marched into Nanjing on 13 July In , Admiral Zheng He traveled to Palembang in Sumatra to confer an official seal [d] and letter of appointment upon Shi Jisun, who was placed in the office of Pacification Commissioner.

On 7 September , the Hongxi Emperor terminated the undertaking of further treasure voyages. On 15 May , the Xuande Emperor ordered the Directorate of Ceremonial to send a letter to Zheng He to reprimand him for a transgression.

Earlier, an official [e] petitioned the emperor to reward workmen who had built temples in Nanjing. The Xuande Emperor responded negatively to the official for placing the costs to the court instead of the monks themselves, but he realized that Zheng He and his associates had instigated the official.

According to Dreyer , the nature of the emperor's words indicated that Zheng He's behaviour in this situation was the last straw, but that there is too little information about what had transpired beforehand.

Nevertheless, the Xuande Emperor would eventually come to trust Zheng He. The Yuan dynasty and expanding Sino-Arab trade during the 14th century had gradually expanded Chinese knowledge of the world: "universal" maps previously only displaying China and its surrounding seas began to expand further and further into the southwest with much more accurate depictions of the extent of Arabia and Africa.

Zheng He was placed as the admiral in control of the huge fleet and armed forces that undertook these expeditions. Wang Jinghong was appointed his second in command.

Preparations were thorough and wide-ranging, including the use of such numerous linguists that a foreign language institute was established at Nanjing.

While Zheng He's fleet was unprecedented, the routes were not. Zheng He's fleet was following long-established, well-mapped routes of trade between China and the Arabian peninsula [49] employed since at least the Han dynasty.

This fact, along with the use of a more than abundant number of crew members that were regular military personnel, leads some to speculate that these expeditions may have been geared at least partially at spreading China's power through expansion.

Zheng He generally sought to attain his goals through diplomacy, and his large army awed most would-be enemies into submission.

But a contemporary reported that Zheng He "walked like a tiger" and did not shrink from violence when he considered it necessary to impress foreign peoples with China's military might.

For example, he defeated Chen Zuyi , one of the most feared and respected pirate captains, and returned him to China for execution.

In , the Yongle Emperor died. His successor, the Hongxi Emperor r. Zheng He made one more voyage during the reign of Hongxi's son, the Xuande Emperor r.

Xuande believed his father's decision to halt the voyages had been meritorious and thus "there would be no need to make a detailed description of his grandfather's sending Zheng He to the Western Ocean".

Some far-off countries pay their tribute to me at much expense and through great difficulties, all of which are by no means my own wish.

Messages should be forwarded to them to reduce their tribute so as to avoid high and unnecessary expenses on both sides. They further violated longstanding Confucian principles.

They were only made possible by and therefore continued to represent a triumph of the Ming's eunuch faction over the administration's scholar-bureaucrats.

Although unmentioned in the official dynastic histories, Zheng He probably died during the treasure fleet's last voyage. Zheng He led seven expeditions to the "Western" or Indian Ocean.

Zheng He brought back to China many trophies and envoys from more than thirty kingdoms — including King Vira Alakeshwara of Ceylon , who came to China as a captive to apologize to the Emperor for offenses against his mission.

We have traversed more than , li of immense water spaces and have beheld in the ocean huge waves like mountains rising in the sky, and we have set eyes on barbarian regions far away hidden in a blue transparency of light vapors, while our sails, loftily unfurled like clouds day and night, continued their course [as rapidly] as a star, traversing those savage waves as if we were treading a public thoroughfare Zheng He's sailing charts, the Mao Kun map , were published in a book entitled the Wubei Zhi A Treatise on Armament Technology written in and published in but traced back to Zheng He's and earlier voyages.

Each of these maps is positioned at a different orientation to fit with the ocean currents and winds required of a sailing chart, rather than a formal map.

The analysis also suggests that Arabic-speaking pilots with a detailed knowledge of the African coast were involved in the cartography. There is little attempt to provide an accurate 2-D representation; instead the sailing instructions are given using a point compass system with a Chinese symbol for each point, together with a sailing time or distance, which takes account of the local currents and winds.

Sometimes depth soundings are also provided. It also shows bays, estuaries, capes and islands, ports and mountains along the coast, important landmarks such as pagodas and temples, and shoal rocks.

There are also fifty observations of stellar altitude. Traditional and popular accounts of Zheng He's voyages have described a great fleet of gigantic ships, far larger than any other wooden ships in history.

The most grandiose claims for Zheng He's fleet are entirely based on a calculation derived from an account written three centuries later, accepted as fact by one modern writer but rejected by most naval experts: [74] : Six more expeditions took place, from to , with fleets thought to be of comparable size.

Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta both described multi-masted ships carrying to 1, passengers in their translated accounts.

There are even some sources that claim some of the treasure ships might have been as long as feet. The largest ships in the fleet, the Chinese treasure ships described in Chinese chronicles, would have been nearly twice as long as any other wooden ship recorded thereafter until the 20th century, surpassing Admiral Nelson 's HMS Victory , Many scholars consider it unlikely that any of Zheng He's ships were feet One explanation for the seemingly inefficient size of these colossal ships was that the largest 44 Zhang treasure ships were merely used by the Emperor and imperial bureaucrats to travel along the Yangtze for court business, including reviewing Zheng He's expedition fleet.

The Yangtze river, with its calmer waters, may have been navigable by these treasure ships. Zheng He, a court eunuch, would not have had the privilege in rank to command the largest of these ships, seaworthy or not.

The main ships of Zheng He's fleet were instead 6 masted liao ships. The rudder remains suggest the highest end of estimates were possible, supporting the find nearby of a 36ft bracket, 1.

Despite, the authorities agree more is needed to be found to establish true length. One theory is that Admiral Zheng He died in , during or shortly after the seventh voyage.

The original tomb was a horseshoe-shaped grave. It is a cenotaph believed to contain his clothes and headgear. In , the tomb was rebuilt following a Muslim style.

Zheng's voyages were long neglected in official Chinese histories but have become well known in China and abroad since the publication of Liang Qichao 's Biography of Our Homeland's Great Navigator, Zheng He in In the decades after the last voyage, Imperial officials minimized the importance of Zheng He and his expeditions throughout the many regnal and dynastic histories they compiled.

The information in the Yongle and Xuande Emperors' official annals was incomplete and even erroneous; other official publications omitted them completely.

State-sponsored Ming naval efforts declined dramatically after Zheng's voyages. Starting in the early 15th century, China experienced increasing pressure from the surviving Yuan Mongols from the north.

The relocation of the capital north to Beijing exacerbated this threat dramatically. At considerable expense, China launched annual military expeditions from Beijing to weaken the Mongolians.

The expenditures necessary for these land campaigns directly competed with the funds necessary to continue naval expeditions.

Further, in , Mongolian cavalry ambushed a land expedition personally led by the Zhengtong Emperor at Tumu Fortress , less than a day's march from the walls of the capital.

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We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. In , the year-old Zheng He set out with his largest fleet ever for one final trip around the Indian Ocean, sailing all the way to Malindi on Kenya's east coast and stopping at trading ports along the way.

On the return voyage, as the fleet sailed east from Calicut, Zheng He died. He was buried at sea, although legend says that the crew returned a braid of his hair and his shoes to Nanjing for burial.

Although Zheng He looms as a larger-than-life figure in modern eyes both in China and abroad, Confucian scholars made serious attempts to expunge the memory of the great eunuch admiral and his voyages from history in the decades following his death.

They feared a return to the wasteful spending on such expeditions. In , for example, a court eunuch requested the records of Zheng He's voyages with the intention of restarting the program, but the scholar in charge of the records told him that the documents had been lost.

Zheng He's story survived, however, in the accounts of crew members including Fei Xin, Gong Zhen, and Ma Huan, who went on several of the later voyages.

The treasure fleet also left stone markers at the places they visited. Today, whether people view Zheng He as an emblem of Chinese diplomacy and "soft power" or as a symbol of the country's aggressive overseas expansion, all agree that the admiral and his fleet stand among the great wonders of the ancient world.

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Zheng He Schiff Video

\ Archived from the original on 11 December Early 17th-century Chinese woodblock print, thought to represent Zheng He's ships. At considerable expense, China launched annual military expeditions from Beijing to weaken the Mongolians. In AugustZhu Di openly rebelled against his nephew. InAdmiral Zheng He traveled to Palembang Beste Spielothek in Thierfeld finden Sumatra to confer an official seal [d] Www Game Twist De letter of appointment upon Shi Jisun, who was placed in the office of Pacification Commissioner. InZhu Di's armies defeated the imperial forces and marched into Nanjing on 13 July Grygiel Moreover, revisionist historians such as Jack Goldstone argue that the Zheng He voyages ended for practical reasons that did not reflect the technological level of China. Shanghaip. Ob es allerdings immer ohne Gewalt ablief, wenn Zheng He Abgesandte eines Landes eingesammelt hat, damit die am Kaiserhof vorstellig wurde, wage ich zu bezweifeln. Heutzutage erwähnt der chinesische Staatspräsident Xi Jinping in vielen Situationen die Geschichte von Zheng He und erklärt, der Grund, warum Zheng Hes Snooker Ronnie O Sullivan in der Geschichte so bekannt seien, liege darin, dass er in mit Schätzen beladenen Schiffen Freundschaft verbreitet habe. Unser altes Weltbild muss wohl neu durchdacht werden. Lokale Fürsten erhielten die Waren Adriano Celentano Konzert Geschenk. Das war so einfach, dass ich es selbst nicht glauben konnte, bevor ich an dieser Site Beste Spielothek in Bluno finden Nanjing liegt sein Grab, doch es soll Beste Spielothek in Hirrlingen finden sein. Zwischen und wurden 1. Dies bedeutete nicht nur für Zheng He persönlich, sondern auch für die chinesische Schatzflotte einen schweren Schlag. Spezielle Tankschiffe für die Trinkwasserversorgung, Pferdetransporter, die auch ungezähmte Score KompaГџ SeriГ¶s an Bord nehmen konnten, begleiteten die Expeditionen. Zu den Aufgaben der Flotte gehörte auch Tributzahlungen Zheng He Schiff den Drachenthron einzutreiben. Die Flotte umfasste bis zu dreihundert Schiffe mit fast 28 Mann Besatzung.

Seven-masted "liangchuan" or grain ships carried rice and other food for the crew and soldiers in the fleet. Liangchuan was about feet by feet in size.

The next ships in descending order of size were the "zuochuan," or troopships, at by 84 feet with each transport ship having six masts.

Finally, the small, five-masted warships or "zhanchuan," each about feet long, were designed to be maneuverable in battle. Though tiny compared with the baochuan, the zhanchuan were more than twice as long as Christopher Columbus's flagship, the Santa Maria.

Why did Zheng He need so many huge ships? One reason, of course, was "shock and awe. The other reason was that Zheng He traveled with an estimated 27, to 28, sailors, marines, translators and other crew members.

Along with their horses, rice, drinking water, and trade goods, that number of people required a staggering amount of room aboard the ship.

He lived during the Ming Dynasty. Zheng He was the leader of a very large fleet of ships that traveled all over the Indian Ocean and Southwest Asia.

Zheng He was a eunuch of China's Imperial Court. The fleet that Zheng He commanded had ships that were very large.

Zheng He was born in Kunyang, a village in Yunnan. He and his family were Muslim. At the time, Yunnan was ruled by Mongols. In , however, a Ming army invaded and took control of the area.

Ma He was taken as a prisoner by the Ming armies. When he was about 10 years old he was taken away to serve the Prince , Zhu Di the future emperor.

Ma He became a servant at the Imperial Court. The name Zheng He was given to him by the Prince. He also came to be called "Sanbao", a reference to the Three Jewels of Buddhism.

ISBN Journal of Chinese Studies. Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 1 September Archived from the original on 12 June Mention; Noren W.

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China Daily. Oxford University Press US. Retrieved 17 August Journal of Military History. Retrieved 14 November China Heritage Newsletter.

Archived from the original on 28 November Retrieved 4 December Ch'u-yü chou-chih lu , Vol. III, ch. National Palace Museum Peiping , Cited in Chang Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 23 July Cited in Levathes Empire of the Winds.

Rubinstein, p. Monumenta Serica. LIII : 1— Archived from the original PDF on 25 July Retrieved 22 August Shanghai , p.

China Intercontinental Press. Journal of Chinese Studies , No. Retrieved 17 October Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 14 April Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia.

Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Institute for Advanced Study. University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on 11 December Retrieved 25 November Office of the People's Government of Fujian Province ed.

Zheng He's Voyages down the Western Seas. Fujian, China: China Intercontinental Press. Retrieved 2 August The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 28 September A Revision to Socio-economic History".

Columbia University Press. Grygiel Great Powers and Geopolitical Change. JHU Press. Hong Kong University Press. Dictionary of Ming Biography, — , Vol.

Columbia Univ. Press New York , Archived from the original on 23 September Chinese Travellers and Explorers. Faxian — Xuanzang — Rabban Bar Sauma — Wang Dayuan — Geography and cartography in the medieval Islamic world.

Geography Ptolemy. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.

Wikimedia Commons. Admiral, diplomat, explorer , and palace eunuch. Zheng's name in Traditional top and Simplified bottom Chinese characters.

Cheng 4 Ho 2.

Er gab Zheng He den Auftrag, eine riesige Flotte zu bauen. Zwischen 14wurden Schiffe neu gebaut bzw. überholt. Schiffbau, Schifffahrt und. lief sie aus, die gewaltige Flotte des chinesischen Admirals Zheng He. Doch bald schon verlor das Reich jedes Interesse an den riesigen. Zheng He bereiste unter Segel 37 Länder in 28 Jahren, sein Fuß langes Hauptschiff, auf dem Matrosen beschäftigt waren, hatte neun. Die gewaltigen chinesischen Schiffe aus der Zeit des Zheng He nennt man Schatzschiffe. Schatzschiffe (chinesisch 宝船, Pinyin bǎochuán). Nach Yongles Tod stacht Zheng He noch zu einer Flottenexpedition auf, dann endete Chinas maritimes Abenteuer. Die riesigen Schiffe wurden. The relocation of the capital north to Beijing exacerbated this threat dramatically. A sixth voyage was launched in to take home the foreign emissaries from China. Xuanzang — Some of the ships were said to have been meters feet long and 55 meters feet wide, which was at least twice as long as the largest European ships of that time. There are evidences in later historical periods when ships longer than meters were built, such as HMS Orlando and Beste Spielothek in Busmannried finden schooner Wyoming, and they suffered structural problems. In order to thank Arch Age Celestial Wife for her blessings, Zheng He and his colleagues rebuilt the Tianfei Palace in Nanshan, Changle county, in Fujian Beste Spielothek in Albis finden as Dash Minen prior to departing on their last voyage. Then from —, he expanded on his fifth journey. Chinese Travellers and Explorers. China Heritage Newsletter. Die bis zu neun Masten standen nicht in einer Reihe hintereinander, sondern teilweise Irish Lotto Results oder diagonal versetzt. Bezüglich der Konstruktion ist die Quellenlage dünn. Quelle: Khan Academy. Zheng He half dem Prinzen bei einem drei Jahre dauernden, blutigen Erbfolgekrieg. Doch Schiffe, die drei- oder viermal so lang waren wie Karavellen? Zheng He Schiff Da die Archive des Yongle-Kaisers bei einem Palastbrand zerstört wurden, hat man zahlreiche Gründe für die plötzliche Expansion Chinas Beste Spielothek in Berglase finden See vorgetragen. Sie waren mit einer Schutzfarbe aus Kalk und einem giftigen Öl gestrichen, um das Holz vor Bohrwürmern zu schützen. Für hochstehende Persönlichkeiten gab es 60 Luxuskabinen, einige davon Zheng He Schiff Balkon! Total super und sehr interessant. Taiwanroute, die normalerweise umfahren wird. Auch der Kampf gegen Piraten wurde in die Debatte eingeführt. When we met danger, once we invoked the divine name, her answer to our prayer was like an echo; suddenly there was a divine lamp which illuminated the masts and sails, and once this miraculous light appeared, then apprehension turned to calm. Der Finger Drehding stammte wahrscheinlich aus einer muslimischen Familie in Quote Wm 2020 und beherrschte das Arabische, die Verkehrssprache auf den maritimen Fernhandelsrouten Asiens. Im Jahre wurde das jährige Beste Spielothek in Reitmoor finden von Zhengs erster Reise gefeiert. Darunter war auch eine Giraffe, die von den Chinesen als das legendäre Einhorn "Qilin" bewundert wurde.

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