Kokain Wikipedia Inhaltsverzeechnes

Kokain oder Cocain (auch Benzoylecgoninmethylester) ist ein starkes Stimulans und Betäubungsmittel. Es findet weltweit Anwendung als Rauschdroge mit. De Kokain (oder Cocain) ass ee Stimulant an eng pyschoaktiv Drog mat héijem Dohier gëtt Methamphetamin dacks ënner dem Numm Kokain verkaaft. Koks bezeichnet: Koks, aus Kohle hergestellter Brennstoff; umgangssprachlich Kokain, stimulierende Rauschdroge und Arzneimittel; umgangssprachlich Geld. Koks (von englisch coke, seltener coaks) ist ein poröser, stark kohlenstoffhaltiger Brennstoff mit hoher spezifischer Oberfläche, der aus Kohle durch. [1] Wikipedia-Artikel „Kokain“: [1] Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache „​Kokain“: [1] Uni Leipzig: Wortschatz-Portal „Kokain“: [1] The.

Kokain Wikipedia

De Kokain (oder Cocain) ass ee Stimulant an eng pyschoaktiv Drog mat héijem Dohier gëtt Methamphetamin dacks ënner dem Numm Kokain verkaaft. Kokain auf Wikipedia discriminator.be Erowid - Cocaine Die englischsprachige Website ist eine Online-Datenbank mit Informationen zu. Kokain ist ein Alkaloid, also eine stickstoffhaltige organische Wikipedia; URL: https://​de​.wikipedia​.org/​w​i​k​i​/​K​okain (Stand.

Kokain Wikipedia Video

Afghanistan's Secret Heroin Epidemic (Drugs Documentary) [1, 2] Wikipedia-Artikel „Koks (Begriffsklärung)“: [1, 2] Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache „Koks“: [1, 2] Uni Leipzig: Wortschatz-Portal „Koks“. Kokain ist ein Alkaloid, also eine stickstoffhaltige organische Wikipedia; URL: https://​de​.wikipedia​.org/​w​i​k​i​/​K​okain (Stand. Kokain oder Cocain ist ein starkes Stimulans. Als Stimulans definiert die WHO Substanzen, die die. Kokain auf Wikipedia discriminator.be Erowid - Cocaine Die englischsprachige Website ist eine Online-Datenbank mit Informationen zu. Kokain Wikipedia

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Sowohl das Landeskriminalamt Berlin als auch das Bundesministerium für Gesundheit warnen daher die Apotheker eindringlich vor einer unkritischen Abgabe von Lidocain. Der Schwarzmarktpreis für ein Kilogramm i. Drogenmarkt - Kokain und andere Stimulanzien unter der Lupe: Seit wird im Kanton Waadt eine interdisziplinäre Studienreihe zum Betäubungsmittelmarkt durchgeführt. Nach der Geburt können Verhaltensauffälligkeiten bei Kindern auftreten, der Kopfumfang kann geringer sein als durchschnittlich zu erwarten wäre. Diese Zustände können chronisch bleiben. Medienmitteilung der Universität Zürich, Beitrag auf 20 Minuten. Dabei werden technische Chemikalien Kerosin, Batteriesäure mit gesundheitlich bedenklichen Reinheitsgraden verwendet, was unter anderem ein Grund für die vielfältigen Verunreinigungen des illegalen Kokains ist. Ovaj proces se odvija putem oksidacijekojom se regenerira pirrolinijum kation Beste Spielothek in KГјhbГ¶rncheshof finden formira enolatni anion, te unutarmolekulska Mannichova reakcija. Low-birthweight babies are 20 times more likely to die in their first month of life than normal-weight babies, and face an increased risk of lifelong disabilities such as mental retardation and cerebral palsy. With excessive dosage, tremors, convulsions and increased body temperature are observed. Niemann je opisal vsak korak, ki ga je izvedel v izolaciji kokaina v Cool Online disertaciji Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern O novi organski bazi v listih kokeki je Payback Konto KГјndigen objavljena leta La cocaina Kingcom Spiele Gratis forte dipendenza psichica in chi ne fa uso. Cocaine's desired euphoric effects are delayed when snorted Wish Neu Anmelden the nose by about five minutes. The tea has often been recommended for travelers in the Andes to prevent altitude sickness. An excerpt of the report strongly conflicted with accepted Batman The Penguin, for example "that occasional cocaine use Beste Spielothek in Aua finden not typically lead Oddset ErgebniГџe Gestern severe Beste Spielothek in Hilpensberg finden even minor physical or social problems. In Peru, the National Coca Companya state-run corporation, sells cocaine-infused teas and other medicinal products and also exports leaves to the U. Man unterscheidet die Herkunftspflanzen wie folgt:. SofortГјberweisung Gesperrt Substanzverlangen wird meist durch Schlüsselreize ausgelöst Gerüche, Musik, BilderBeste Spielothek in Gahlen finden bestimmte Situationen StressStimmungen, Orte und fast immer durch den vorherigen Autohof TheeГџen von Alkohol oder anderen psychotropen Substanzen. Kokain ist ein Alkaloid, also eine stickstoffhaltige organische Verbindung, Beste Spielothek in Ermke finden aus den Blättern des Kokastrauchs gewonnen wird. Bei Menschen, wo derartige direkte Experimente nicht möglich sind, kann jedoch Faber Lotto Geschenk SeriГ¶s Längsschnittstudien untersucht werden, ob die Wahrscheinlichkeit des Gebrauchs einer Substanz mit dem früheren Gebrauch von anderen Substanzen in Beziehung steht. Koks von englisch cokeseltener coaks [1] [2] ist ein poröser, stark kohlenstoff haltiger Brennstoff mit hoher spezifischer Oberfläche, der aus Kohle durch Wärmeeinwirkung unter Sauerstoffabschluss Pyrolyse erzeugt wird, wobei die flüchtigen Bestandteile der Kohle abgetrennt werden. Kokain Wikipedia

Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Disambiguazione — Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Cocaina disambigua.

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Puoi migliorare questa voce aggiungendo citazioni da fonti attendibili secondo le linee guida sull'uso delle fonti. Li, K. Zhao, S. Deng, D.

Landry, Helv. Cowen, W. URL consultato il 2 giugno Part i Minimum, maximum, mean and modal typical purity recorded percentage , su www.

Howell e Kathryn A. Cunningham, Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor interactions with dopamine function: implications for therapeutics in cocaine use disorder , in Pharmacological Reviews , vol.

Aguilar, Role of dopamine and glutamate receptors in cocaine-induced social effects in isolated and grouped male OF1 mice , in Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior , vol.

Wise e M. Bozarth, Brain mechanisms of drug reward and euphoria , in Psychiatric Medicine , vol. Siesser, Benjamin D. Sachs e Amy J.

URL consultato il 2 febbraio URL consultato l'8 ottobre Altri progetti Wikiquote Wikizionario Wikimedia Commons. Grund dafür ist, dass das Risiko sonst zu hoch ist, dass die Betroffen rückfällig werden.

Zudem wird meist ein Gespräch mit den Betroffenen geführt, damit sich die Ärzte ein Bild des Patienten machen können. Nach dem Entzug ist eine weitere Medizinische Behandlung zwingend notwendig, um einen Rückfall zu vermeiden.

Dazu können auch Medikamente verwendet werden. Das statistische Risiko für Kokainkonsumenten, an einer Überdosis Kokain zu sterben, beträgt ein Zwanzigstel gegenüber Heroinkonsumenten, an einer Überdosis Heroin zu sterben.

In Deutschland wurden im Jahr insgesamt 27 Todesfälle gezählt, die direkt mit dem alleinigen Konsum von Kokain in Verbindung standen.

In 90 weiteren Todesfällen war Kokain neben anderen Drogen auch involviert. Von besonderer Bedeutung ist hier einerseits die Mischintoxikation mit Heroin und Kokain und andererseits die von Lidocain respektive Tetracain und Kokain.

Besonders die Verunreinigung von Kokain mit Lidocain stellt ein lebensbedrohliches Problem dar, wie eine Studie aus dem Jahr dreier rechtsmedizinischer Institute in Berlin zur toxikologischen Bewertung der Lokalanästhetika Lidocain und Tetracain bei Drogentodesfällen feststellt.

Hierdurch erhöht sich die Gewinnspanne der am Handel beteiligten Akteure. Sowohl das Landeskriminalamt Berlin als auch das Bundesministerium für Gesundheit warnen daher die Apotheker eindringlich vor einer unkritischen Abgabe von Lidocain.

Einer der Hauptgründe für den Lidocainverschnitt liegt in der lokalanästhetischen Wirkung dieses Stoffes, durch den beispielsweise beim Zungentest Kokain leicht vorgetäuscht werden kann.

Besonders problematisch ist Lidocain- oder Tetracainverschnitt, wenn Kokain weder geschnupft noch geraucht, sondern intravenös injiziert wird.

Letztendlich führte die Lähmung des zentralen Nervensystems oder die Blockade des Erregungsbildungssystems des Herzens zum Tode.

Siehe auch Abschnitt Gefahren durch Streckmittel. Personen mit unentdeckten, an sich harmlosen Herzfehlern können bereits nach einmaligem Kokainkonsum sterben.

Beim gemeinsamen Gebrauch von Schnupfröhrchen kann es bei der nasalen Applikation von Kokain zur Übertragung von Krankheitserregern kommen.

Dies gilt insbesondere für Dauerkonsumenten, da diese häufiger Verletzungen an den Nasenschleimhäuten haben als Gelegenheitskonsumenten.

Das gemeinsame Benutzen von scharfkantigen Schnupfröhrchen z. Deshalb sollten die Regeln des Safer Sniffing beim Schnupfvorgang eingehalten werden.

Kokain vermindert die subjektiv wahrgenommene Wirkung von anderen Drogen wie Alkohol. Ein Kokainkonsument läuft somit leichter Gefahr, eine Alkoholvergiftung zu bekommen als jemand, der Alkohol ohne Beikonsum anderer Drogen trinkt.

Cocaethylen ist der Ethylester von Benzoylecgonin während Kokain der entsprechende Methylester ist und hemmt die Wiederaufnahme von Dopamin in gleicher Weise wie Kokain bei längerer Wirkdauer.

Es kommt zu einer deutlichen Verstärkung der Wirkung des Kokains auf die vitalen Funktionen, zu einer Steigerung des Aktivitätsdrangs und zu einer Minderung des Alkoholrausches.

Dabei sprechen einige Studien dafür, dass Cocaethylen insbesondere für das Herz schädlicher ist als beide Substanzen Alkohol und Kokain für sich.

Wird nach dem Konsum von Cannabis Kokain geschnupft, wird ein höherer Blutspiegel von Kokain erzielt als nach dem Schnupfen von Kokain in nüchternem Zustand.

Dies führt zu länger anhaltenden Phasen euphorischer Gefühlsempfindungen, die zudem etwas intensiver wahrgenommen werden als nach dem Monokonsum von Kokain.

Zu beachten ist jedoch, dass der Mischkonsum von Cannabis und Kokain auch zu einer stärkeren Erhöhung der Herzfrequenz und des Blutdrucks führt als der Monokonsum dieser Substanzen.

Besonders in Situationen von Anspannung und Stress tritt dieser additive Effekt verstärkt auf. Für Personen mit vorgeschädigtem Herz-Kreislauf-System ergeben sich aus dem Mischkonsum zusätzliche Gefahren, die über die Summe der Einzelgefahren hinausgehen.

In Tierversuchen kann relativ einfach festgestellt werden, ob der Konsum einer Substanz die spätere Attraktivität einer anderen Substanz für Tiere erhöht.

Bei Menschen, wo derartige direkte Experimente nicht möglich sind, kann jedoch in Längsschnittstudien untersucht werden, ob die Wahrscheinlichkeit des Gebrauchs einer Substanz mit dem früheren Gebrauch von anderen Substanzen in Beziehung steht.

Das Problem illegaler Drogen ist generell, dass sie meist nur gestreckt auf dem Schwarzmarkt angeboten werden. Näheres hierzu ist im einleitenden Abschnitt nachzulesen.

Daher besteht die Gefahr, dass ein unbekanntes Streckmittel enthalten ist, welches unter Umständen gesundheitsschädlich oder sogar tödlich sein kann.

Auch allergische Reaktionen bis hin zum Allergieschock gegen die Beimischungen sind bekannt. Insbesondere mit Lidocain oder Tetracain versetztes Kokain ist problematisch, wenn das Gemisch intravenös injiziert wird.

Es kann zur Lähmung des zentralen Nervensystems und zur Blockade des Herz-Erregungsleitungssystems führen und deshalb tödlich sein. Allein in Berlin waren in den Jahren bis insgesamt 46 Todesfälle im Zusammenhang mit Lidocain und 13 weitere Todesfälle durch Tetracain zu beklagen.

In Europa traten gegen Ende des Jahres bislang einzigartige, lebensgefährliche Verunreinigungen mit Atropin auf.

In den letzten Jahren wurde vermehrt Levamisol als Streckmittel beigemengt. Das normalerweise als Entwurmungsmittel angewandte Medikament wird bereits in den Produktionsländern beigemengt, da es den dortigen Farmen zur Verfügung steht, optisch Kokain gleicht und dessen Wirkung leicht verlängern soll.

Kokainkonsumenten sollten auf HLA-B27 getestet werden. Des Weiteren kann es zu einer versehentlichen Überdosierung mit schweren gesundheitlichen oder tödlichen Folgen kommen, wenn das Kokain einen höheren Reinheitsgrad und damit einen höheren Kokaingehalt hat als vom Konsumenten erwartet oder gewohnt.

Kokainsulfat ist eigentlich ein Zwischenprodukt bei der Herstellung von Kokainhydrochlorid. Mit Calciumoxid weiterbehandelt wird es als Oxi bezeichnet.

In Südamerika wird Kokainsulfat allerdings auch häufig vermischt mit Tabak geraucht, da es im Vergleich zu den anderen Kokainformen sehr viel billiger ist.

Kokainbase ist die Basenform von Kokain im Gegensatz zu Kokainhydrochlorid. Während letzteres sehr gut wasserlöslich ist, ist Kokainbase unlöslich in Wasser und somit nicht zum Schnupfen, Essen oder zur Injektion geeignet.

Kokainbase ist einerseits ebenfalls ein Zwischenprodukt bei der Herstellung von Kokainhydrochlorid, andererseits ist es auch üblich, auf dem Schwarzmarkt erworbenes Kokainhydrochlorid durch Erhitzen in Ammoniakwasser wieder zur Base umzuwandeln, da Kokain in Basenform sehr viel effektiver geraucht werden kann als Kokainhydrochlorid.

Das Hydrochlorid ist gut wasserlöslich und daher zum Schnupfen, Essen oder zur Injektion geeignet. Deshalb wird für diesen Zweck meist Kokainbase oder Crack hergestellt.

Crack macht deutlich schneller süchtig als herkömmliches Kokain und ist damit die Droge mit dem höchsten psychischen Abhängigkeitspotenzial.

Während die o. Dabei wird Kokain mit Kobalt- und Eisenchlorid vermischt. In dieser nicht konsumierbaren Form wird Kokain nicht mehr von den üblichen Tests erkannt.

Im Zielland wird das Kokain dann reextrahiert. Auf dem Schwarzmarkt verfügbares Kokain ist selten rein, sondern mit verschiedenen Substanzen gestreckt.

It also functions on the binding sites to the dopamine and serotonin sodium dependent transport area as targets as separate mechanisms from its reuptake of those transporters; unique to its local anesthetic value which makes it in a class of functionality different from both its own derived phenyltropanes analogues which have that removed.

In addition to this cocaine has some target binding to the site of the Kappa-opioid receptor as well.

The locomotor enhancing properties of cocaine may be attributable to its enhancement of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra.

Cocaine can often cause reduced food intake, many chronic users lose their appetite and can experience severe malnutrition and significant weight loss.

Cocaine effects, further, are shown to be potentiated for the user when used in conjunction with new surroundings and stimuli, and otherwise novel environs.

Cocaine has a short half life of 0. Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine. Detection of cocaine metabolites in hair is possible in regular users until the sections of hair grown during use are cut or fall out.

Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product. Cocaine appearing in powder form is a salt , typically cocaine hydrochloride.

Street cocaine is often adulterated or "cut" with talc , lactose , sucrose , glucose , mannitol , inositol , caffeine , procaine , phencyclidine , phenytoin , lignocaine , strychnine , amphetamine , or heroin.

The color of "crack" cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the method of preparation — with ammonia or baking soda — and the presence of impurities.

It will generally range from white to a yellowish cream to a light brown. Its texture will also depend on the adulterants, origin and processing of the powdered cocaine, and the method of converting the base.

It ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature. Cocaine — a tropane alkaloid — is a weakly alkaline compound, and can therefore combine with acidic compounds to form salts.

Different salts dissolve to a greater or lesser extent in various solvents — the hydrochloride salt is polar in character and is quite soluble in water.

As the name implies, "freebase" is the base form of cocaine, as opposed to the salt form. It is practically insoluble in water whereas hydrochloride salt is water-soluble.

Smoking freebase cocaine has the additional effect of releasing methylecgonidine into the user's system due to the pyrolysis of the substance a side effect which insufflating or injecting powder cocaine does not create.

Some research suggests that smoking freebase cocaine can be even more cardiotoxic than other routes of administration [81] because of methylecgonidine's effects on lung tissue [82] and liver tissue.

Pure cocaine is prepared by neutralizing its compounding salt with an alkaline solution, which will precipitate to non-polar basic cocaine.

It is further refined through aqueous-solvent liquid—liquid extraction. Smoking or vaporizing cocaine and inhaling it into the lungs produces an almost immediate "high" that can be very powerful and addicting quite rapidly — this initial crescendo of stimulation is known as a "rush".

While the stimulating effects may last for hours, the euphoric sensation is very brief, prompting the user to smoke more immediately.

This effectively destroys some of the cocaine and yields a sharp, acrid, and foul-tasting smoke. The origin of the name "crack" comes from the "crackling" sound and hence the onomatopoeic moniker "crack" that is produced when the cocaine and its impurities i.

Coca herbal infusion also referred to as coca tea is used in coca-leaf producing countries much as any herbal medicinal infusion would elsewhere in the world.

The free and legal commercialization of dried coca leaves under the form of filtration bags to be used as "coca tea" has been actively promoted by the governments of Peru and Bolivia for many years as a drink having medicinal powers.

In Peru, the National Coca Company , a state-run corporation, sells cocaine-infused teas and other medicinal products and also exports leaves to the U.

Visitors to the city of Cuzco in Peru, and La Paz in Bolivia are greeted with the offering of coca leaf infusions prepared in teapots with whole coca leaves purportedly to help the newly arrived traveler overcome the malaise of high altitude sickness.

The effects of drinking coca tea are a mild stimulation and mood lift. In order to prevent the demonization of this product, its promoters publicize the unproven concept that much of the effect of the ingestion of coca leaf infusion would come from the secondary alkaloids, as being not only quantitatively different from pure cocaine but also qualitatively different.

It has been promoted as an adjuvant for the treatment of cocaine dependence. In one controversial study, coca leaf infusion was used—in addition to counseling—to treat 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in Lima , Peru.

Relapses fell from an average of four times per month before treatment with coca tea to one during the treatment. These results suggest that the administration of coca leaf infusion plus counseling would be an effective method for preventing relapse during treatment for cocaine addiction.

Importantly, these results also suggest strongly that the primary pharmacologically active metabolite in coca leaf infusions is actually cocaine and not the secondary alkaloids.

The first synthesis and elucidation of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in Since then, Robert Robinson and Edward Leete have made significant contributions to the mechanism of the synthesis.

The second addition occurs through a Claisen condensation. This produces a racemic mixture of the 2-substituted pyrrolidine, with the retention of the thioester from the Claisen condensation.

In formation of tropinone from racemic ethyl [2,C 2 ] 4 Nmethylpyrrolidinyl oxobutanoate there is no preference for either stereoisomer.

The stereoselectivity of this reaction was further investigated through study of prochiral methylene hydrogen discrimination. The benzoyl moiety required for the formation of the cocaine diester is synthesized from phenylalanine via cinnamic acid.

The biosynthesis begins with L- Glutamine , which is derived to L- ornithine in plants. The major contribution of L-ornithine and L- arginine as a precursor to the tropane ring was confirmed by Edward Leete.

In animals, however, the urea cycle derives putrescine from ornithine. L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, [96] which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine.

Hydrolysis of the imine derives N -carbamoylputrescine followed with hydrolysis of the urea to form putrescine. The separate pathways of converting ornithine to putrescine in plants and animals have converged.

A SAM-dependent N -methylation of putrescine gives the N -methylputrescine product, which then undergoes oxidative deamination by the action of diamine oxidase to yield the aminoaldehyde.

The biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloid , however, is still uncertain. Hemscheidt proposes that Robinson's acetonedicarboxylate emerges as a potential intermediate for this reaction.

Decarboxylation leads to tropane alkaloid formation. The reduction of tropinone is mediated by NADPH -dependent reductase enzymes, which have been characterized in multiple plant species.

Cocaine and its major metabolites may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor for abuse, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death.

Most commercial cocaine immunoassay screening tests cross-react appreciably with the major cocaine metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances.

When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the cocaine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would incapacitate a cocaine-naive individual, and the chronic user often has high baseline values of the metabolites in his system.

Cautious interpretation of testing results may allow a distinction between passive or active usage, and between smoking versus other routes of administration.

Similar claims have been made in web forums on that topic. Cocaine may be detected by law enforcement using the Scott reagent.

The test can easily generate false positives for common substances and must be confirmed with a laboratory test.

The shade of brown shown by the chloroform is proportional to the cocaine content. This test is not cross sensitive to heroin, methamphetamine, benzocaine, procaine and a number of other drugs but other chemicals could cause false positives.

According to a United Nations report, England and Wales are the countries with the highest rate of cocaine usage 2. Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in Europe behind cannabis.

Since the mids, overall cocaine usage in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to vary between countries.

Approximately 17 million Europeans 5. About 1. The ratio of male to female users is approximately 3. In London had the highest amount of cocaine in its sewage out of 50 European cities.

Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind cannabis [] and the U.

It is also popular amongst college students, as a party drug. A study throughout the entire United States has reported that around 48 percent of people who graduated from high school in have used cocaine recreationally during some point in their lifetime, compared to approximately 20 percent of students who graduated between the years of and In the s and s, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio For over a thousand years South American indigenous peoples have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca , a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids , including cocaine.

The coca leaf was, and still is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities. The remains of coca leaves have been found with ancient Peruvian mummies, and pottery from the time period depicts humans with bulged cheeks, indicating the presence of something on which they are chewing.

When the Spanish arrived in South America , most at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil.

When they wished to make themselves drunk and out of judgment they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which make them go as they were out of their wittes.

In , Padre Blas Valera wrote:. Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots.

And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it?

Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until Various European scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was insufficient at the time, [ citation needed ] and contemporary conditions of sea-shipping from South America could degrade the cocaine in the plant samples available to European chemists.

The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in Gaedcke named the alkaloid "erythroxyline", and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie.

In , Friedrich Wöhler asked Dr. Carl Scherzer , a scientist aboard the Novara an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe , to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America.

In , the ship finished its travels and Wöhler received a trunk full of coca. Wöhler passed on the leaves to Albert Niemann , a PhD student at the University of Göttingen in Germany, who then developed an improved purification process.

Niemann described every step he took to isolate cocaine in his dissertation titled Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves , which was published in —it earned him his PhD and is now in the British Library.

He wrote of the alkaloid's "colourless transparent prisms" and said that "Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste, promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to the tongue.

The first synthesis and elucidation of the structure of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant.

In , Vassili von Anrep, of the University of Würzburg , devised an experiment to demonstrate the analgesic properties of the newly discovered alkaloid.

He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely salt water.

He then submerged a frog's legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways.

The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently from the leg that had been immersed in salt water.

Karl Koller a close associate of Sigmund Freud , who would write about cocaine later experimented with cocaine for ophthalmic usage. In an infamous experiment in , he experimented upon himself by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins.

His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society. Also in , Jellinek demonstrated the effects of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic.

In , William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia, [] and James Leonard Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia.

In , an Italian doctor , Paolo Mantegazza , returned from Peru , where he had witnessed first-hand the use of coca by the local indigenous peoples.

He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan he wrote a paper in which he described the effects.

In this paper he declared coca and cocaine at the time they were assumed to be the same as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of "a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence , and whitening of the teeth.

A chemist named Angelo Mariani who read Mantegazza's paper became immediately intrigued with coca and its economic potential.

In , Mariani started marketing a wine called Vin Mariani , which had been treated with coca leaves, to become cocawine.

The ethanol in wine acted as a solvent and extracted the cocaine from the coca leaves, altering the drink's effect. A "pinch of coca leaves" was included in John Styth Pemberton 's original recipe for Coca-Cola , though the company began using decocainized leaves in when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed.

In cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction. Cocaine was introduced into clinical use as a local anesthetic in Germany in , about the same time as Sigmund Freud published his work Über Coca , in which he wrote that cocaine causes: [].

Exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person. You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity for work.

In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe you are under the influence of any drug. Long intensive physical work is performed without any fatigue.

This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about by alcoholic beverages.

No craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even after repeated taking of the drug. In the U.

The company promised that its cocaine products would "supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and render the sufferer insensitive to pain.

By the late Victorian era , cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature. For example, it was injected by Arthur Conan Doyle 's fictional Sherlock Holmes , generally to offset the boredom he felt when he was not working on a case.

In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee , cocaine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale Street , costing five or ten cents for a small boxful.

Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers. During the mids, amidst World War II, cocaine was considered for inclusion as an ingredient of a future generation of 'pep pills' for the German military, code named D-IX.

In modern popular culture, references to cocaine are common. The drug has a glamorous image associated with the wealthy, famous and powerful, and is said to make users "feel rich and beautiful".

In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug. In the United States, the development of "crack" cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market.

Use of the powder form has stayed relatively constant, experiencing a new height of use during the late s and early s in the U. Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood.

The estimated U. Cocaine's status as a club drug shows its immense popularity among the "party crowd". However, a decision by an American representative in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study, because it seemed to make a case for the positive uses of cocaine.

An excerpt of the report strongly conflicted with accepted paradigms, for example "that occasional cocaine use does not typically lead to severe or even minor physical or social problems.

This led to the decision to discontinue publication. A part of the study was recuperated and published in , including profiles of cocaine use in 20 countries, but are unavailable as of [update].

In October it was reported that the use of cocaine in Australia has doubled since monitoring began in A problem with illegal cocaine use, especially in the higher volumes used to combat fatigue rather than increase euphoria by long-term users, is the risk of ill effects or damage caused by the compounds used in adulteration.

The normal adulterants for profit are inactive sugars, usually mannitol, creatine or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of purity and to 'stretch' or make it so a dealer can sell more product than without the adulterants.

The production, distribution, and sale of cocaine products is restricted and illegal in most contexts in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine are additionally regulated by the Controlled Substances Act.

Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia, permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional consumption by the local indigenous population , but nevertheless, prohibit the production, sale, and consumption of cocaine.

The US federal government instituted a national labeling requirement for cocaine and cocaine-containing products through the Pure Food and Drug Act of While this act is often seen as the start of prohibition, the act itself was not actually a prohibition on cocaine, but instead set up a regulatory and licensing regime.

In , according to the United Nations , tonnes of cocaine were seized globally by law enforcement authorities.

Because of the drug's potential for addiction and overdose, cocaine is generally treated as a " hard drug ", with severe penalties for possession and trafficking.

Demand remains high, and consequently, black market cocaine is quite expensive. Unprocessed cocaine, such as coca leaves , are occasionally purchased and sold, but this is exceedingly rare as it is much easier and more profitable to conceal and smuggle it in powdered form.

Colombia is as of the world's largest cocaine producer, with production more than tripling since This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mids.

Coca grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws, only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade.

An interview with a coca farmer published in described a mode of production by acid-base extraction that has changed little since The leaves were dried for half a day, then chopped into small pieces with a string trimmer and sprinkled with a small amount of powdered cement replacing sodium carbonate from former times.

Once powdered caustic soda was added to this, the cocaine precipitated and could be removed by filtration through a cloth. The resulting material, when dried, was termed pasta and sold by the farmer.

Repeated recrystallization from solvents, producing pasta lavada and eventually crystalline cocaine were performed at specialized laboratories after the sale.

Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use.

Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear. These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine.

Although production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded in numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than the larger plantations.

The cultivation of coca has become an attractive economic decision for many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, the spread of new strains of the coca plant due to persistent worldwide demand.

The latest estimate provided by the U. As of the end of , the seizure operations of Colombian cocaine carried out in different countries have totaled Department of State's estimates.

Synthetic cocaine would be highly desirable to the illegal drug industry as it would eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine.

However, natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine. Actual full synthesis of cocaine is rarely done.

Formation of inactive stereoisomers cocaine has 4 chiral centres — 1 R , 2 R , 3 S , and 5 S , 2 of them dependent, hence a total potential of 8 possible stereoisomers plus synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity.

Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. As of [update] , cocaine shipments from South America transported through Mexico or Central America were generally moved over land or by air to staging sites in northern Mexico.

The cocaine is then broken down into smaller loads for smuggling across the U. The primary cocaine importation points in the United States have been in Arizona , southern California , southern Florida , and Texas.

Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U. Sixty-five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida.

Cocaine traffickers from Colombia and Mexico have established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida.

They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug using a variety of smuggling techniques to U.

Another route of cocaine traffic goes through Chile, which is primarily used for cocaine produced in Bolivia since the nearest seaports lie in northern Chile.

While the price of cocaine is higher in Chile than in Peru and Bolivia, the final destination is usually Europe, especially Spain where drug dealing networks exist among South American immigrants.

Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as " mules " or "mulas" , who cross a border either legally, for example, through a port or airport, or illegally elsewhere.

The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body. If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most of the profits.

If he or she is caught, however, gangs will sever all links and the mule will usually stand trial for trafficking alone. Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western Caribbean— Gulf of Mexico area.

Commercial fishing vessels are also used for smuggling operations. In areas with a high volume of recreational traffic, smugglers use the same types of vessels, such as go-fast boats , as those used by the local populations.

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Cocaine use during pregnancy can affect a pregnant woman and her unborn baby in many ways. During the early months of pregnancy, it may increase the risk of miscarriage.

Later in pregnancy, it can trigger preterm labor labor that occurs before 37 weeks of pregnancy or cause the baby to grow poorly.

As a result, cocaine-exposed babies are more likely than unexposed babies to be born with low birthweight less than 5. Low-birthweight babies are 20 times more likely to die in their first month of life than normal-weight babies, and face an increased risk of lifelong disabilities such as mental retardation and cerebral palsy.

Cocaine-exposed babies also tend to have smaller heads, which generally reflect smaller brains. Some studies suggest that cocaine-exposed babies are at increased risk of birth defects, including urinary-tract defects and, possibly, heart defects.

Cocaine also may cause an unborn baby to have a stroke, irreversible brain damage, or a heart attack. An appreciable tolerance to cocaine's high may develop, with many addicts reporting that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first experience.

While tolerance to the high can occur, users might also become more sensitive drug sensitization to cocaine's local anesthetic pain killing and convulsant seizure inducing effects, without increasing the dose taken; this increased sensitivity may explain some deaths occurring after apparent low doses of cocaine.

Crack cocaine is popularly thought to be the most addictive form of cocaine. The claim that cocaine is much more addictive when smoked must be reexamined.

The intense desire to recapture the initial high is what is so addictive for many users. A typical response among users is to have another hit of the drug; however, the levels of dopamine in the brain take a long time to replenish themselves, and each hit taken in rapid succession leads to progressively less intense highs.

Use of cocaine in a binge, during which the drug is taken repeatedly and at increasingly high doses, leads to a state of increasing irritability, restlessness, and paranoia.

Large amounts of crack cocaine several hundred milligrams or more intensify the user's high, but may also lead to bizarre, erratic, and violent behavior.

Synonyms used to refer to crack cocaine include atari ; base ; bazooka ; beamers ; beemers ; bebe ; bee-bee ; berry ; bing ; bolo ; bomb ; boulder ; boulders ; butter ; caine ; cane ; Casper ; Casper the ghost ; cavvy ; chemical ; chewies ; cloud ; cloud nine ; crills ; crunch and munch ; dip ; famous dimes ; fan ; fish scale ; fries ; fry ; glo ; golfball ; gravel ; grit ; hail ; hamburger ; helper ; hubba ; ice cube ; kangaroo ; kibbles and bits ; kibbles ; krills ; lightem ; paste ; patico ; pebbles ; pee wee ; pony ; raw ; ready ; ready rocks ; redi rocks ; roca ; rock ; rooster ; rox ; Roxanne ; scud ; Scotty ; scramble ; scruples ; seven-up ; sherm ; sherms ; sleet ; snowballs ; stones ; teeth ; tension ; top gun ; tweak ; ultimate ; wash ; white cloud ; work ; yahoo ; yale ; yay ; yayoo ; yeah-O ; yeyo ; yeo ; and yuck.

Crack cocaine may be combined with amphetamine "croack" ; tobacco "coolie" ; marijuana "buddha"; "caviar"; "chronic"; "cocoa puffs"; "fry daddy"; "gimmie"; "gremmie"; "juice"; "primo"; "torpedo"; "turbo"; "woolie"; "woola" ; heroin "moon rock" ; and phencyclidine "clicker"; "p-funk"; "spacebase".

Crack smoking "hitting the pipe"; "puffing"; "beaming up to Scotty " is commonly performed with utensils such as pipes "bowl"; "devil's dick"; "glass dick"; "horn"; "Uzi" ; improvised pipes made from a plastic bottle "Masarati" ; water pipes "bong"; "hubbly-bubbly" ; and laboratory pipettes "demo".

Cocaine is listed as a Schedule I drug in the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , making it illegal for non-state-sanctioned production, manufacture, export, import, distribution, trade, use and possession.

In Australia, crack falls under the same category as cocaine, which is listed as a Schedule 8 controlled drug , indicating that any substances and preparations for therapeutic use under this category have high potential for abuse and addiction.

It is permitted for some medical use, but is otherwise outlawed. As a Schedule I substance under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act , crack is not differentiated from cocaine and other coca products.

However, the court may weigh the socio-economic factors of crack usage in sentencing. As a guideline, Schedule I drugs carry a maximum 7-year prison sentence for possession for an indictable offense and up to life imprisonment for trafficking and production.

In the United States, cocaine is a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act , indicating that it has a high abuse potential but also carries a medicinal purpose.

The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of increased penalties for crack cocaine possession and usage. It mandated a mandatory minimum sentence of five years without parole for possession of five grams of crack; to receive the same sentence with powder cocaine one had to have grams.

In the Netherlands it is a List 1 drug of the Opium Law. Rob Ford , the 64th mayor of Toronto , was filmed smoking crack while he was in office.

Marion Barry , Mayor of Washington D. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Form of the drug cocaine. Main article: Prenatal cocaine exposure.

Main article: Substance dependence. Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment. Washington, D. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Costa Rica. Annals of Emergency Medicine. Retrieved August 18, ABC News. Retrieved 10 July Postgraduate Medical Journal Review.

City of New York. Journal of Substance Use. Harm Reduction Journal. Edinburgh, Scotland: Mainstream Publishing. Daily Star.

Retrieved 17 June Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. British Journal of Pharmacology. Chemical Research in Toxicology.

The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, Chemico-Biological Interactions. Alexander August The New York Times.

March of Dimes. Ernest Shackleton je vzel na Antarktiko tablete kokaina vrste Forced March. Ob prehodu v Do leta , ko so ZDA uvrstile kokain v Zakon nadzorovanih substanc, kokain ni veljal za nadzorovano substanco.

CAS Surovine dajo v kad in stopajo po njih. Kokain hidroklorid je izredno dobro topen v vodi, baza kokaina pa je v vodi netopna. Zato ni primerna za pitje, vdihavanje ali injiciranje.

Kokain hidroklorid ni primeren za kajenje, saj je temperatura, pri kateri hlapi, izredno visoka in blizu temperature, pri kateri gori.

Prosta baza kokaina se proizvaja najprej z raztapljanjem kokain hidroklorida v vodi. Baza, najpogosteje amonijak NH 3 , se doda k raztopini.

Kokain kot prosta baza Coc je netopen v vodi in se obori, raztopina postane motna. Pogosto so izpustili filtracijo. Droga se absorbira skozi mukozne membrane v smeri sinusov.

Evforija preide hitro. Benzoilekgonin, metabolit kokaina, se lahko zazna v urinu ljudi nekaj ur po popitju ene skodelice poparka kokinih listov. Kokain se je uporabljal v medicinske namene in neformalno kot peroralni ansetetik.

Ta hipoteza je dobro podkrepljena z laboratorijskimi raziskavami in podatki o podganah, ki so bile izurjene, da so si same dozirale kokain. Zraven tega se pri rednih uporabnikih pogosto pojavljajo tudi kap, napadi in glavoboli.

Depresija s samomorilnimi nagnjenji se lahko pojavi pri zelo pogostih uporabnikih. Zaradi absorpcije kokaina iz kokaina hidroklorida, preostali hidroklorid tvori topno solno kislino.

Leta je postala Kolumbija vodilna svetovna proizvodnica kokaina in je ostala vodilna do leta Poskusi izkoreninjenja polj koke z defolizacijo imajo poguben del v poljedelski ekonomiji v nekaterih regijah, kjer se goji koko v Kolubiji, razvili pa so se sevi, ki so bolj rezistentni in imuni na njihovo uporabo.

Na obale Kornvala je naplavilo bale kokaina Iz Wikipedije, proste enciklopedije. IUPAC ime. Interactive image. Narcotic Drugs.

National Book Trust, India , p. ISBN Pridobljeno dne Surv Ophthalmol. A perspective on a new debut for an old girl". Clinical Toxicology.

Joyfull Newes out of the Newe Founde Worlde. Prevedel J. Gaedcke Archiv der Pharmazie.